By Sidney Painter
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Additional info for A History of the Middle Ages: 284-1500
D. is successors lacked the resources to hold these regions. • In 568 a new Germanic migration, that of the Lombards, engulfed Italy. By the end of the sixth century the emperor at Constantinople ruled Sicily, the toe of the Italian boot, Rome and its vicinity, and Ravenna and Venice on the Adriatic Sea. The rest of Italy was held by the Lombards. It is difficult to estimate the other effects of the migration on the western provinces in the Mediterranean region. Before the Germans entered the empire in mass, the material prosperity and civilization of these provinces had declined.
In 496 Clovis crushed the Alemans and absorbed them into his state. He also persuaded or forced the other Frankish bands to recognize him as their king. Some ten years after his victory over the Alemans, Clovis announced that his conscience could not rest while Arian heretics ruled southern Gaul. He soon invaded the lands of the Visigoths. Deserted by the clergy and people of the region who favored the Catholic Oovis, the Visigoths were defeated and deprived of all their lands in 30 CHAPTER 1: Roman and German Gaul except for a narrow strip in the extreme south.
The more important industries were carried on by guilds or corporations strictly controlled by the state. Each THE BYZANTINE El\IPIRE AND ITS FOES 39 corporation had the monopoly of its particular manufacture. The state regulated its purchasing of raw materials, the marketing of the finished product, the methods of manufacturing, prices, and profits. Everything was carefully watched by government inspectors. Actually the craftsmen were employees of the state working under its direction. The result was a high degree of industrial stability, but little or no technological progress.