By Christian Fleck
From the start of the 20 th century, clinical and social clinical examine has been characterised by means of highbrow trade among Europe and the united states. The institution of the 3rd Reich ensured that, from the German conversing international, at the very least, this grew to become a one-way site visitors. during this ebook Christian Fleck explores the discovery of empirical social study, which by means of 1950 had turn into the binding norm of overseas scholarship, and he analyses the contribution of German refugee social scientists to its institution. the most important names are the following, from Adorno and Horkheimer to Hirshman and Lazarsfeld, yet on the center of the ebook is a distinct collective biography in accordance with unique facts from greater than 800 German-speaking social scientists. released in German in 2008 to nice acclaim, Fleck's very important learn of the transatlantic enrichment of the social sciences is now to be had in a revised English-language edition.
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Extra info for A Transatlantic History of the Social Sciences: Robber Barons, the Third Reich and the Invention of Empirical Social Research
In the 1940s and 1950s, the academic market in the United States was a ‘seller’s market’. A major effect of the pronounced market structure that determined the allocation of human capital in the American educational and science system is that novices are put under strong pressure to present proofs of their competence 20 The Building of an American Empire within a rather short time. This is counterbalanced by openings on the faculty level that do not depend on whether there is actually a vacancy or the present jobholder agrees to a partial cooptation.
Material support for gifted but needy students is no doubt an institution as old as the university itself. Traditionally, students were supported to help them finish their studies. What was new about the grants awarded by foundations is indicated by the very term ‘fellowships’, which soon became quite common, marking as it did the difference from ‘scholarships’ that were granted for educational purposes. A NEW WAY TO SUPPORT JUNIOR SCIENTISTS The idea of awarding one-year fellowships to university graduates was voiced, advocated and finally realized by one of the first American Nobel laureates, Robert Andrews Millikan (1868–1953).
So, why not use the same scientific approach to reveal the sources of those social evils which, at the time, were framed as a social pathology? Moreover, the widespread belief, stimulated by scientific achievements, that if only scientific research was permitted to go on long enough it would in the end also detect the laws that governed the social sphere, acted as a catalyst (Karl and Katz 1981: 243–4). Around 1900, the first industrial magnates turned to the sciences as the ‘needy’ ones of modernity, and at the same adopted – by their own account at any rate – the tools of science in order to invest their donations with similar accuracy in meeting their targets.