By Viacheslav A. Chirikba
Abkhaz is likely one of the 3 languages comprising the Abkhazo-Adyghean, or West Caucasian department of North Caucasian linguistic family members (the different department being Nakh-Daghestanian, or East Caucasian). Abkhaz is spoken via nearly 100,000 humans within the former Soviet union (mainly within the Republic of Abkhazia, Caucasus), and through at the least an identical variety of audio system in Turkey and a few center east nations (small Abkhaz colonies are available additionally in Western Europe and the USA). Abkhaz is infamous for its large consonantal stock (up to sixty seven consonants in its Bzyp dialect) and through its minimum vocalic approach: purely vowels. notwithstanding Abkhaz was once studied via a couple of students (among whom P. Uslar in XIX century, or extra simply okay. Lomtatidze in Georgia and G. Hewitt in nice Britain), many features of Abkhaz grammar (especially its syntax) nonetheless need to be competently defined. Abkhaz is the one West Caucasian language to own the class of grammatical periods, manifested in own pronouns, verb conjugation, numerals and in class of quantity. Abkhaz is an ergative language, the ergative building being represented no longer through case endings, as in comparable Circassian and Ubykh (Abkhaz doesn't have the case system), yet through order of actant markers. The verbal root is composed frequently of 1 consonant, preceded through a string of prefixes (class-personal, directional, temporal, negational, causative, etc.) and through few suffixes. Verbs might be stative or dynamic, finite or non-finite. The grammatical caricature of Abkhaz contains information regarding its phonological process, morphology, and syntax. a quick textual content is supplied with grammatical reviews.
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Extra resources for Abkhaz
In: "Jafeticheskij sbornik", VI. Leningrad, S. 205-212. 1934. Abkhazskij jazyk (Materialy po abkhazskoj grammatike) [The Abkhaz language (Materials for Abkhaz grammar)] . In: Trudy Abkhazkogo Nauchno-Issledovate/'skogo Instituta Kul 'tury, vyp. 2, Sukhum, p. 3-28. 1972. Izbrannye raboty (Selected Works) . S. Bgazhba. Sukhum: Alashara, 231 pp. KHETSIJA, A. 1986. 1988. Neologizmy v abkhazskomjazyke (Neologisms in the Abkhaz Language] . Tbilisi : Mecniereba, 128 pp. , von. 1814. Reise in den Kaukasus und nach Georgien unternommen in den Jahren 1807 und 1808, enthaltend eine vollstandige Beschreibung der Kaukasischen Lander und ihrer Bewohner.
2. Structure of the AdP. Adpositions are predominantly postposed to the words they govern, so that we have exclusively postpositional phrases: a. locative: j-Bb ja-C'a 'his-father his-at = at his father's place'. b. +q'a 'my-mother her-DIR =to my mother'. c. terminative: a-bfa+t"' cba a-q '
HOV, M. 1984. Ocherki obshchego i kavkazskogo jazykoznanija. Nal 'chik: El 'brus, 326 pp. LW/M 119 82 Abkhaz KV ARCHIJA, V. 1981 . Zhivotnovodcheskaja (pastusheskaja) leksika v abkhazskom jazyke [The Vocabulary of Animal-Husbandry (Shepherding) in the Abkhaz language]. Sukhum: Alashara, 134 pp. 1985. Ojkonimy Abkhazii v pis 'mennykh istochnikakh [Abkhaz Settlement-Names in Written Sources].